A Particle-into-Liquid Sampler – Total Organic Carbon and fraction collector sys-tem was ﬂown aboard a Twin Otter aircraft sampling prescribed burning emis-sions in South Carolina in November 2011 to obtain smoke marker measure-ments. The fraction collector provided 2min time-integrated oﬀ-line samples for car-bohydrate (i.e., smoke markers levoglucosan, mannosan, galactosan) analysis by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detec-tion. Each ﬁre location appeared to have a unique ∆ levoglucosan/∆ water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) ratio (RF01/RF02/RF03/RF05= 0.163± 0.007µgCµgC−1, RF08= 0.115±0.011µgCµgC−1, RF09A= 0.072±0.028µgCµgC−1, RF09B= 0.042±0.008µgCµgC−1). These ratios were comparable to those obtained from con-trolled laboratory burns and suggested that the emissions sampled during RF01/RF02/RF03/RF05 were dominated by the burning of grasses, RF08 by leaves, RF09A by needles, and RF09B by marsh grasses. These ﬁndings were fur-ther supported by the ∆ galactosan/∆ levoglucosan ratios (RF01/RF02/RF03/RF05=0.067± 0.004µgµg−1, RF08= 0.085±0.009µgµg−1, RF09A= 0.101± 0.029µgµg−1) obtained as well as by the ground-based fuel and ﬁlter sample analyses during RF01/RF02/RF03/RF05. Diﬀerences between ∆potassium/∆ levoglucosan ratios ob-tained for these prescribed ﬁres vs. laboratory-scale measurements suggest that some laboratory burns may not accurately represent potassium emissions from prescribed burns. The ∆ levoglucosan/∆ WSOC ratio had no clear dependence on smoke age or ﬁre dynamics suggesting that this ratio is more dependent on the type of fuel being burned. Levoglucosan was stable over a timescale of at least 1.5h and could be useful to help estimate the air quality impacts of biomass burning.