Scientific References

Peer Reviewed Literature: New online method for water isotope analysis of speleothem fluid inclusions using laser absorption spectroscopy (WS-CRDS)

Presented at
Clim. Past, 10, 1291–1304, 2014 doi:10.5194/cp-10-1291-2014


A new online method to analyse water isotopes of speleothem fluid inclusions using a wavelength scanned cavity ring down spectroscopy (WS-CRDS) instrument is
presented. This novel technique allows us simultaneously to measure hydrogen and oxygen isotopes for a released aliquot of water. To do so, we designed a new simple line that allows the online water extraction and isotope analysis of speleothem samples. The specificity of the method lies in the fact that fluid inclusions release is made on a standard water background, which mainly improves the 𝛿D robustness. To saturate the line, a peristaltic pump continuously injects standard water into the line that is permanently heated to 140 𝛿C and flushed with dry nitrogen gas. This permits instantaneous and complete vaporisation of the standard water, resulting in an artificial water background with well-known 𝛿D and 𝛿18O values. The speleothem sample is placed in a copper tube, attached to the line, and after system stabilisation it is crushed using a simple hydraulic device to liberate speleothem fluid inclusions water. The released water is carried by the nitrogen/standard water gas stream directly to a Picarro L1102-i for isotope determination. To test the accuracy and reproducibility of the line and to measure standard water during speleothem measurements, a syringe injection unit was added to the line. Peak evaluation is done similarly as in gas chromatography to obtain 𝛿D and 𝛿18O isotopic compositions of measured water aliquots. Precision is better than 1.5‰ for 𝛿D and 0.4‰ for 𝛿18O for water measurements for an extended range (−210 to 0‰ for 𝛿D and −27 to 0‰ for 𝛿18O) primarily dependent on the amount of water released from speleothem fluid inclusions and secondarily on the isotopic composition of the sample. The results show that WS-CRDS technology is suitable for speleothem fluid inclusion measurements and gives results that are comparable to the isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) technique.